After Andes introduces the three theoretical frameworks, she explains each frameworks or approaches in depth, in relation to a table that expresses the earnings and occupations of men and women.
The source of the table, or known as empirical evidence, is taken from the UC Bureau of the Census in The table expressed many different types of employment in the labor force. By comparing the annual earnings between men and women, the table illustrates that the men made, give and take, 10, dollars more than the women.
The numbers in the table suggest that differences in the labor market are valid, under the conditions of class position and segregation. After introducing the three theoretical frameworks and the empirical evidence, Andes illustrates many of her goals through this analysis.
But her main ultimate goal is to find which theoretical perspective or framework is best supported by empirical evidence. In order for this analysis to happen, different data and methods were conducted, gathered, analyzed, and compared. The data that are used are from the General Social Survey combined across nine survey years. Currently employed workers over the age of eighteen are selected, 3, women and 4, men are surveyed.
The results of this method are expressed through four tables. The first table illustrates the description of 12 social classes by occupational attributes, with the 12 social classes ranging from self-employed or autonomous professional being class one to a class of unionized operatives and laborers being class twelve.
The second table illustrates the gender distribution in each of the 12 social class structures. The third table demonstrates the distribution of both gender into account and shows the proportion of women to men in each class.
In this table, women are more likely to be found as clerical workers, sales clerks, cleaning, and food service workers class 9 , and routine clerical and supervised technical and service workers class On the contrast, women are least likely to be found as managers, administrator, and self-employed construction contractors class 4 , and unionized skilled industrial workers class This table implies that women are not distributed across all social classes in equal proportion to their overall labor force participation.
Table four illustrates the classification rates of discriminant analysis with the results for the separate male and female samples. When comparing the tables from each other, many conclusions and implications were made. But before we interpret the conclusions, one must understand the difference between sex and gender.
The results also obviously illustrate that gender, not sex alone, but integrated gendered class attributes are a significant characteristic because there are different proportions of women and men in each class. In conclusion, it is the integrated gendered class perspective or approach that is supported by empirical evidence. Besides the article expressing its analysis on gender inequality, there are many theorists and or scholars from other sociological perspectives that address themselves.
Sociologists Talcott Parson and Robert Bales, argued that in order for a family to function at all, chores or tasks must be done by a particular role or a division of labor must be established between marital partners. Within this division of labor, women are more likely or viewed by society to take upon expressiveness tasks or duties, which are concern for the harmony and internal and emotional affairs within the family; whereas the men are more likely to take upon instrumentality tasks, which refer to the focus of distant goals and the external affairs within the family.
As for a conflict perspective, conflict theorists view that social structure is undesirable if it is maintained by the method of oppressors and the oppressed. They are aware that relationships between male and female always had an unequal amount of power with men dominating over the women.
Another voice from a feministic point of view is from Letty Cottin Pogrebin who also suggests that in order for men to dominate over women, it had to have started when we were children, taught to accept the gender-role divisions as a natural aspect of life. Conflict theorists also emphasize the fact that the issues of men being dominant over women goes farther than labor force or the division of tasks within the household.
The issue could also be viewed by the way women are treated by men. For example, wife battering and sexual and street harassment illustrate how women can be seen as the subordinate person or position. Schaefer and Lamm While the functionalist and the conflict perspective focus on the macro levels of society, the interactionist approach focuses on the micro level of society, such as everyday behavior.
One example would be the communication level between a man and a woman. The girl who does not seem to be noticed by her father invents a game that would make him notice. This line is for the most part an image because it is a specific detail that appeals to the senses.
An image that helps imagine something beyond just a thought. This image is visual as we can actually see something being molded into a specific shape. Denotation is an important part of understanding figurative language, for it gives the reader the literal meanings of the words used. Molding means to work into a required shape or form and to have influence in determining or forming.
This image is very significant to the theme of the poem. There are three main points to consider when determining if a piece of literature is worthy of being placed in the canon. The piece of literature must have a perceived aesthetic value, have historical or cultural significance, and have longevity or subsequent influence on other works of literature. This poem has aesthetic beauty.
The poem is also full of figurative language, which adds to the beauty. The poem contains both historical and cultural value. It contains information about a great Argentinian revolutionary leader and describes how woman lived and were valued not only in society generally but also inthe hispanic culture.
However, the lack of clear and definite conclusions about which aspects of this power and how it drives perpetrators of violence indicates that more research is needed into the broad, societal level factors that underlie violence against women.
public schools, and the amendment improved gender disparities in other areas as well. However, twenty-five years later, the problem of gender inequality remained. According to The Report Card on Gender Equity released by the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education in June (p.
Nov 19, · Essay on gender equality The issue of gender equality has been widely discussed in philosophical literature and the mass media sources. In any democratic society, gender equality is considered to be an important moral principle that should be followed by all members of society/5(52). Therefore, gender equality implies a society in which women and men enjoy the same opportunities, outcomes, rights and obligations in all aspects of life. Gender equality includes sharing equally in the distribution of power, influence, opportunities, financial independence, and access to education and jobs.
- Gender Equality in Sports Literature Review Gender equality is defined as the act of treating men and women equally on all levels. When this gender equality is thrown into discussion with our continuously growing sports culture, it . Apr 30, · Free Essays from Bartleby | Gender Leadership and equality Introduction to Research There are different aspects of gender equality .